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Kutheni kubalulekile ukuba umntwana afunde ukufunda ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe?

by | Feb 28, 2023 | Road to Literacy

Abantwana bayawathanda amabali. Enyanisweni, nabantu abadala ngokunjalo. Xa ubalisela omnye umntu malunga nento ethile eyenzeke kuwe, ubabalisela ibali – elinye lamabali akho.

Sicinga ngamabali kwaye sonwabela amabali achukumisa iingcinga-ntelekelelo zethu aze asincede siphophononge ihlabathi. Ukuba sicinga ngolwimi esilonwabelayo ukuluthetha, ngoko ke senza amabali ngolwimi lwenkobe. Esi sesinye sezizathu sokuba kutheni abantwana kufuneka baphuhlise izakhono zabo zokufunda nokubhala (ukwazi ukufunda kunye nokubhala) ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe.

Uphando lubonise ukuba ulwimi lwenkobe (lwaseKhaya) lomntwana lolona lwimi lokufunda nokubhala kunye nelokufunda kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi (UNESCO, 2008a). Abantwana abafunda ukufunda ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe/ lwaseKhaya ngabona bahlalayo baphumelele esikolweni (Kosonen, 2005). Umzali kulindeleke ukuba anxibelelane notitshala womntwana wakhe kuba ezi ncoko zibanjwa ngolwimi lwenkobe (Benson, 2002). Izakhono zokucinga zomntwana ziza kuphuhla ngokukhawuleza ngaphezulu kwaye zomelele ukuba abantwana baqala ukufundiswa ngolwimi abaluthetha ekhaya (Nishanthi, 2020); kwaye umntwana uza kuphuhlisa ubuyena nenkcubeko yakhe kwaye abe nonxibelelwano olunzulu nenkcubeko yakhe (Nishanthi, 2020).

Ukwazi ukuba umntwana ukufunda njani ukufunda kuza kunceda ukucacisa ukuba kutheni kubaluleke kangaka ukuba bafunde ukufunda ngolwimi lwenkobe.

“Umntwana uqala ukuziqonda izinto ezimngqongileyo ngolwimi aluva enxibelelana ngalo unina kwaphambi kokuba azalwe kunye nobomi babo bonke.”

Iintsana zizalwa zikwazi ukuva nasiphina isandi salo naluphina ulwimi. Kwakamsinyane zenza izandi zokunxibelelana ngeemfuno zazo. Njengokuba abazali bethetha nosana lwabo ngolwimi lwenkobe, usana luqala luzilibale izandi olungazivayo kuba azibalulekanga kunxibelelwano. Kwakamsinyane, luqalisa ukukopa izandi oluzivayo ukuze xa lunonyaka ubudala, luqalise ukudibanisa intsingiselo namagama oluwaqondayo luze luqalise ukubiza amagama. Abantwana baqala ngamagama abawava rhoqo, ngoko ke umntwana uya esikolweni enesigama somlomo esingolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe.

Esikolweni, abantwana baza kufundiswa ukuba amagama esiwabizayo nesiwavayo enziwa zizandi ekufuneka zibhalwe. Umzekelo, igama elithi inja lenziwe ngoonobumba “i”, “n”, “j”, “a” kunye nezandi zabo nobumba. Oku kutshatisa oonobumba nezandi yinto esiyenzayo xa sifunda. Sibona oonobumba size sibanike izandi. Emva koko sidibanisa ezi zandi ukwenza igama, size sidibanise onke amagama ukwenza isivakalisi. Oku kucacile kwaye kulula ukuqonda ukuba:  

  • Umntwana uza kufunda ezi zandi ngokulula ngaphezulu ukuba utshatisa izandi azifundayo nezandi zolwimi asele eluthetha.
  • Umntwana uza kufunda ngokuqonda ukuba amagama awafundayo (isigama) sihambelana nesigama asele enaso solwimi aluthethayo.

Ukuba umntwana uthetha ulimi lwanke lwenkobe ekhaya, kubaluleke ngaphezulu ukuba afunde ukufunda ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe. Kuzo zonke iilwimi zelizwe lethu ngaphandle kwesiNgesi, ukuhambelana konobumba-nesandi kusoloko kuli-100%. Umzekelo; oku kuthetha ukuba unobumba “p” uza kusoloko enesandi esifanayo. Oku akunjalo kwisiNgesi. IsiNgesi sinenkqubo entsokothileyo yokuhambelana koonobumba-nezandi enokumbhida umntu othetha isiNgesi njengolwimi lwesibini. Umzekelo, jonga unobumba “c”. Kwigama elithi “cat” unobumba “c” unesandi esingu/k/. Kodwa kwigama elithi “cellphone”, unobumba “c” unesandi esingu/s/. Ngokujonga amagama elithi “cough” nelithi “tough”. La magama “cough” nelithi “though” omabini aphela ngoonobumba “ough”, kodwa abizwa ngokwahluke kakhulu. Umzekelo: My meat was so tough I started to cough. I got through it though when I drank water.

Ukuba umntwana othetha ulwimi lwakhe lwenkobe olungeso siNgesi uqala isikolo aze afunde ngesiNgesi, ukufunda kwakhe esikolweni kulibaziseka malunga neminyaka emithandathu njengokuba ezama ukufunda ukuhambelana koonobumba-nezandi zesiNgesi kunye nesigama (Cummins, 1981). Oku kuza kuthetha ukuba umfundi okwiBanga lesi-6 ofundiswa ngolwimi lwesibini (isiNgesi) uza kuba kumgangatho womfundi weBanga loku-1 ofundiswa ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe.

Uphando lubonise ukuba abantwana bafumana izakhono zokufunda nokubhala ngokukhawuleza ngaphezulu ukuba bafundiswa ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe. Abaphandi abaninzi bakungqinile ukuba ukufunda nokubhala kunye nezakhono zokuqonda ngokupheleleyo umntwana azifunda ngolwimi lwenkobe zigqithiselwa ngokupheleleyo, 100%, kolunye ulwimi abalufunda emva kwexesha. Kungeso sizathu ikharityhulam yeCAPS icela izikolo ukuba zilandele indlela yokuba umntwana aqhubeke nokufunda ulwimi lwenkobe lo gama efunda nolunye ulwimi lwesibini. Ukongezwa kolunye ulwimi kulwimi lwenkobe kuxa ulwimi olongezelelweyo lusongezwa kulwimi umntwana alufunde kuqala (ulwimi lwenkobe) kunokuba luthathe indawo yolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe. Ukuba umntwana ufundiswe ulwimi olongezelelweyo (oludla ngokuba sisiNgesi) ukususela kwiBanga 1, akakwazi ukuphuhlisa izakhono zokufunda nokubhala kulo naluphina ulwimi kwaye isiNgesi sibanamandla kunolwimi lwenkobe. Isiphumo soko kukuba umntwana angakwazi ukufunda kunye nokubhala kakuhle ngazo zombini iilwimi.

Ukufundela ukuqonda lisango lako konke ukufunda. Ngoko ke, ukuze umntwana afumane isiseko semfundo, kufuneka afunde ukufunda kunye nokubhala ngokuqonda afumane intsingiselo ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe. Ukuphuhlisa isiNgesi njengolwimi olongezelelweyo kuza kwenzeka ngokulula ukuba umntwana sele enazo izakhono zokufunda nokubhala ngolwimi lwenkobe.

Abantwana bafanele bawathande amabali abanokuwafunda, kuquka amabali avela kwinkcubeko yabo kunye nokubangqongileyo ukuze bazibone kwaye babone nehlabathi labo kumabali kuze kuhlume nemifanekiso-ntelekelelo yabo. Esi sesona sipho sikhulu onokusipha umntwana – ukwazi ukufunda afumane intsingiselo, uthando lwenkcubeko yabo nolwimi lwabo, kunye nesiseko esiluqilima semfundo yabo.


Benson, C., & Kosonen, K. (Eds.) 2013. Language issues in comparative education: Inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers

Benson, C. 2002. Real and potential benefits of bilingual progammes in developing countries. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5 (6): 303–317.

Nishanthi, R. 2020. “Understanding of the Importance of Mother Tongue Learning” Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD). ISSN: 2456–6470, Volume 5, Issue 1, December 2020: 77–80,

The Common Underlying Proficiency model (Cummins, 1980a, 1981a, as cited in Baker, 2011)

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