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Kutheni abantwana kufuneka bakhuthazwe ukuba bafunde iincwadi ezibhalwe ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe

by | Feb 29, 2024 | Road to Literacy

Rhoqo emva kweminyaka emihlanu, abantwana baseMzantsi Afrika bathatha inxaxheba kuvavanyo lwamazwe ngamazwe olusinceda ukuba sibone indlela abantwana bethu abafunda ngayo. Eli phulo libizwa ngokuba yiNkqubela kuPhononongo loLwazi lokuFunda nokuBhala lwaMazwe ngaMazwe [ Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) ]. Abantwana abakwiBanga lesi-4 nelesi-6 banikwa izicatshulwa zolwimi lwenkobe ukuze bazifunde. Babuzwa imibuzo yokuqonda esekelwe koko bakufundileyo ukuze bavavanywe ukuba bayakwazi na ukufundela intsingiselo.

Iziphumo zovavanyo lwango-2021 zazingekho ntle.

Iimvavanyo zango-2016 zafumanisa ukuba yi-78% yabantwana beBanga lesi-4 abakwaziyo ukuthi xa befundile bafumane intsingiselo. Iziphumo zonyaka wama-2021 zakuqinisekisa ukuhla okukhwankqisayo okungqina ukuba yi-19% kuphela yabantwana baseMzantsi Afrika abaneminyaka eli-10 ubudala abakwaziyo ukufunda ngolwimi lwabo lwasekhaya, emva kokuba befundile bayazi intsingiselo yoko bakufundileyo.

I-81% yabafundi beBanga le-4 eMzantsi Afrika abakwazi ukufunda ngenjongo yokuba bafumane intsingiselo (PIRLS 2021)

Oku kuthetha ukuba ama-81% abantwana bethu:

  • Abasoze baphumelele ezifundweni
  • Bakumathuba amaninzi okungapasi imatriki
  • Baza kusokola ukufumana umsebenzi
  • Abasoze bakonwabele ukufunda incwadi
  • Bazosoloko beziva bephantsi koxinzelelo xa befunda iincwadi zezifundo ezahlukene okanye isicatshulwa esibhaliweyo

Nangona kunjalo ke, sikhona isisombululo.

Uphando lubonisa ukuba ulwimi lwenkobe lomntwana lolona lwimi lufanelekileyo lokufunda nokubhala xa esekwinqanaba lesikolo samabanga aphantsi (UNESCO, 2008a).

Abantwana abafunda ukufunda iincwadi ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe kunokwenzeka ukuba bahlale kwaye baphumelele esikolweni (Kosonen, 2005); makhulu amathuba okuba umzali anxibelelane notitshala womntwana wakhe kuba kaloku ezi ncoko zizakube zenzeka ngolwimi lwenkobe (Benson, 2002); izakhono zokucinga zomntwana ziza kukhula ngokukhawuleza kwaye zomelele ngakumbi ukuba uthe eselula waqala wafundiswa ngolwimi aluthetha ekhaya (Nishanthi, 2020); kwaye umntwana uza kuba nokuzidla ngobuqu kunye nenkcubeko yakhe ngendlela eyomeleleyo, kananjalo abe nonxibelelwano olomeleleyo kwinkcubeko yakhe (Nishanthi, 2020).

Uphando lubonise ukuba abantwana bafumana izakhono zokufunda nokubhala ngokukhawuleza nangempumelelo ukuba bafundiswa ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe. Abaphandi abaninzi baye bangqina ukuba izakhono zokufunda nokubhala ezifundwa ngumntwana ngolwimi lwenkobe zigqithiselwa nge-100% kulo naluphi na olunye ulwimi alufundayo emva kokuba efunde ngolwenkobe. Yiloo nto ke ikharityhulam yeCAPS ibongoza izikolo ukuba zilandele inkqubo yokudibanisa iilwimi ezimbini (additive bilingualism approach). Ulwimi-mbini olongezelelweyo kuxa ulwimi olongezelelweyo longezwa kulwimi lokuqala lomntwana (ulwimi lwenkobe) endaweni yokuba ulwimi olongezelelweyo lugqibele sele luthatha indawo yolwimi lwabo lwasekhaya. Ukuba ngaba umntwana ufundiswe ngolwimi olongezelelweyo (oludla ngokuba sisiNgesi) ukusuka kwiBanga loku-1, uye asokole ekuphuhliseni izakhono zokufunda nokubhala kulo naluphi na ulwimi, kwaye kancinci kancinci isiNgesi siye sigqibele sibe namandla ngakumbi kunolwimi lwenkobe. Oku kubizwa ngokuba yi-subtractive bilingualism.

Ukuba ngaba umntwana othetha ulwimi lwesiNtu uqala isikolo ngesiNgesi, imfundo yakhe ihlehliswa malunga neminyaka emithandathu (Cummins, 1981). Oku kuthetha ukuba xa lo mntwana engumfundi weBanga lesi-6, isiNgesi sakhe siza kuba kwinqanaba lomfundi weBanga loku-1 ofundiswa ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe.

Ukufunda ngokuqonda lisango lakho konke ukufunda. Ukunika umntwana esona siqalo sihle kwimfundo yakhe, kufuneka afunde ukufunda nokubhala ngokuqonda ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe. Ukuphuhlisa isiNgesi njengolwimi olongezelelweyo kuza kwenzeka ngokulula ngakumbi ukuba umntwana unezakhono zokufunda nokubhala ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe.

Abantwana bafanelwe yimfundo esemgangathweni. Bafanelwe likamva. Kodwa bakwafanelwe nakukukuthanda ukufunda. Ukuba ngaba ukufunda kuyabonwabisa, kwaye banikwa amabali abhalwe ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe ukuze bawafunde, basenokufunda izinto abakwaziyo ukuzoyamanisa neempilo zabo kula mabali. Oku kuza kubaqinisekisa ukuba nyani baphila ubomi obukhona, kwangaxeshanye oku kwenze babenokuzithemba.

Esona sipho sikhulu unokusinika umntwana kukwazi ukufunda ngolwimi lwakhe lwenkobe ze wakuba efundile, afumane nentsingiselo. Oku kuza kumnceda ekukhuliseni uthando ngenkcubeko nolwimi lwakhe, kwaye kuza kumnika isiqalo esinamandla kwimfundo yakhe.


References 

Benson, C. & Kosonen, K. (Eds.) 2013. Language issues in comparative education: Inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Benson, C. 2002. Real and potential benefits of bilingual programmes in developing countries. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5(6): 303-317.

Nishanthi, R. 2020. Understanding of the importance of mother tongue learning. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD). ISSN: 2456-6470, 5(1): 77-80.

The Common Underlying Proficiency model (Cummins, 1980a, 1981a, as cited in Baker, 2011).

Baker, C. 2011. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism, 5th ed. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

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