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Kungani izingane zigqugquzelwa ukufunda izincwadi ezibhalwe ngolimi lwazo lwebele

by | Feb 29, 2024 | Road to Literacy

Njalo ngemuva kweminyaka emihlanu, izingane zaseNingizimu Afrika yonkana zithatha izivivinyo zamazwe ngamazwe ukusisiza sibone ukuthi izingane zethu zifunda kahle kangakanani. Lezi vivinyo zibizwa nge-Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). Izingane eziseBangeni lesi-4 nelesi-6 zinikezwa iziqeshana ezibhalwe ngolimi lwazo lwebele ukuthi zifunde. Zibuzwa imibuzo kusukela kulezi qeshana ukuze kubonakale ukuthi ziyayiqonda yini lento eziyifundayo.

Imiphumela yezivivinyo zonyaka wezi-2021 azibanga zinhle.

Imiphumela yezivivinyo zonyaka wezi-2016 yaveza ukuthi u-78% wezingane eziseBangeni lesi-4 azikwazanga ukufunda ngokuqondisisa. Bese ke imiphumela yonyaka wezi-2021 yatshengisa ukwehla kwezinga okuthusayo, ukuthi kube u-19% nje kuphela wezingane ezineminyaka elishumi zaseNingizimu Afrika okwaze ukufunda ngokuqondisisa ngolimi lwebele. 

U-81% wabafundi baseNingizimu Afrika abaseBangeni lesi-4 abakwazi ukufunda ngokuqondisisa (PIRLS 2021).

Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi u-81% wezingane zethu:

  • Angeke ziphumelele kwezemfundo
  • Maningi amathuba wokuba zingaphumeleli kumatikuletsheni
  • Zizohlupheka ukuthola umsebenzi
  • Azisoze zakujabulela ukufunda izincwadi
  • Zizohlezi zikhungathekile uma zifunda izincwadi zezifundo ezahlukene noma imibhalo nje ejwayelekile.

Kodwa ke, sikhona isixazululo.

Ucwaningo selukhombise ukuthi ulimi lwebele lwengane ilona elilungele ingane ukuze ikwazi ukufunda nokubhala uma isemabangeni aphansi esikoleni (UNESCO, 2008a).

Izingane ezikwazi ukufunda ngolimi lwebele zijwayele ukuqeda izifundo zesikole futhi ziphumelela esikoleni (Kosonen, 2005); abazali bayakwazi ukuxhumama nothisha bengane ngoba izingxoxo zenzeka ngolimi lwabo lwebele (Benson, 2002), umqondo wengane wakheka ngokusheha futhi ngokuqina uma iqale ngokufundiswa ngolimi elukhuluma ekhaya (Nishanthi, 2020) futhi ingane izokwakheka ngokwesiqu namasiko iphinde ibe nokuxhumana okuhle nesintu sayo (Nishanthi, 2020).

Ucwaningo selukhombise ukuthi izingane zithola amakhono okufunda nokubhala ngokushesha nangempumelelo uma zifundiswa ngolimi lwazo lwebele. Abacwaningi abaningi sebefakaze ukuthi amakhono okufunda nokubhala kanye nokuqondisisa okufundwa yizingane ngolimi lwazo lwebele kungadluliseka nge-100% kunanoma iluphi ilimi abangalufunda ngokulandelayo. Yikho ke ikharikhulamu ye-CAPS inxenxa izikole ukuthi mazilandele indlela yokuhlanganisa izilimi ezimbili (additive bilingualism approach). Indlela yokuhlanganisa izilimi ezimbili ilapha ingane ifunda ulimi lwesibili ngaphezulu kwalolu elukhulumayo (ulimi lwasekhaya) esikhundleni sokuthi kususwe ulimi lwasekhaya. Uma ingane ifundiswa ulimi lwesibili (okujwayele ukuba iSingisi) kusuka eBangeni lokuqala, ivamise ukuthwala kanzima ukuthola amakhono okufunda nokubhala olimini lwayo lwebele/lwasekhaya, kancane kancane iSingisi kuba yiso esibanamandla okudlula ulimi lwebele/lwasekhaya. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi yi-subtractive bilingualism.

Uma ingane ekhuluma ulimi lomdabu iqala esikoleni ngolimi lweSingisi, ukufunda kwayo kuhlehliseka ngeminyaka eyisithupha (Cummins, 1981). Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi uma isiseBangeni lesithupha (6), iSingisi sayo silinganiselwa kwesengane eseBangeni lokuqala (1) yona efundiswa ngolimi lwayo lwebele.

Ukufunda ngokuqondisisa isango lokufunda konke. Ngakho ke, ukunikeza isiqalo esihle sokufunda ezinganeni, kumele zifunde ukufunda nokubhala ngokuqondisisa ngolimi lwazo lwebele. Ukuthuthukisa iSingisi njengolimi lwesibili kuzokwenzeka kalula uma ingane ifunde ngolimi lwayo lwebele.

Izingane zifanelwe yimfundo esezingeni eliphezulu. Zifanelwe yikusasa elihle. Kodwa futhi zifanelwe ukuthanda ukufunda. Uma izingane zikujabulela ukufunda ziphinde zinikezwe izindatshana ezibhalwe ngolimi lwazo lwebele, ziyakwazi ukuzibona kanye nomhlaba wazo kulezi ndatshana. Lokhu kuzokwakha ukuzethemba. Isipho esikhulu kunazo zonke ongasipha ingane ikhono lokukwazi ukufunda ngokuqondisisa ngolimi lwayo lwebele. Lokhu kuzokwakha uthando lwamasiko ayo kanye nolimi futhi kunikeze nesiqalo esiqinile semfundo yayo.


References 

Benson, C. & Kosonen, K. (Eds.) 2013. Language issues in comparative education: Inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Benson, C. 2002. Real and potential benefits of bilingual programmes in developing countries. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5(6): 303-317.

Nishanthi, R. 2020. Understanding of the importance of mother tongue learning. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD). ISSN: 2456-6470, 5(1): 77-80.

The Common Underlying Proficiency model (Cummins, 1980a, 1981a, as cited in Baker, 2011).

Baker, C. 2011. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism, 5th ed. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

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